vineri , 18 octombrie 2019

Munca ,,la negru” în ferme este greu de depistat

În fermele mari și exploatațiile agricole românești se muncește de zor cu muncitori neangajați.Fie luați la muncă cu ziua, fie pe perioade mai lungi-uneori chiar ani- lucrătorii rareori beneficiază de avantajele unui contract de muncă.Consecințele depistării muncii nedeclarate pot fi foarte grave,amenzile ridicându-se la sume uriașe.

Într-un studiu amplu înaintat Comisiei Europene, se arată că România are cea mai mare pondere a populaţiei ocupate în agricultură din UE, dar majoritatea muncitorilor nu sunt salariaţi. Aproximativ 84% dintre lucrătorii în agricultură din România se încadrează în categoria personalului nesalariat (patroni, lucrători pe cont propriu, lucrători familiali neremuneraţi şi membrii asociaţiilor cooperatiste). Prin contrast, ponderea medie a lucrătorilor nesalariaţi din sectorul agricol în UE este de 72%, iar în unele state chiar cu mult mai redusă (Spania- 50.%, Franţa – 63.1%, Germania – 55.8% ).

Agricultura este afectată puternic de fenomenul muncii „la negru”, însă acesta este mai greu de cuantificat, în condiţiile în care se practică pe scară largă agricultura de subzistenţă şi munca familială, neremunerată.

Toate acestea,în condițiile în care majoritatea fermierilor susțin că este foarte greu să găsească lucrători pricepuți,cu care să își desfășoare activitățile curente,iar salariile pe care le plătesc muncitorilor uneori depășesc cu mult valoarea reală a muncii prestate.De exemplu, în branșa crescătorilor de oi, salariile pe care proprietarii le plătesc ciobanilor rareori coboară sub 2000 de lei lunar și pot să ajungă până la 3500-4000 de lei.

Un alt exemplu demn de consemnat este cel al tractoriștilor de la CAI Curtici, care în lunile de vârf ale campaniilor agricole încasează chiar și 2000 de euro lunar.

Potrivit Iuliei Stejerean inspector șef adjunct ITM Bistrița-Năsăud, relațiile de muncă în mediul rural al județului se desfășoară într-un climat de respectare a legilor, angajatorii respectând în cea mai mare parte condițiile impuse raporturilor de muncă,respectiv contracte de muncă pentru angajați și registrul zilierilor pentru muncitorii cu care se desfășoară acțiuni sezoniere.

Este de datoria noastră, a funcționarilor care își desfășoară activitatea în cadrul ITM BN, să acționăm cu promptitudine și să avem toleranță zero în cazurile în care depistăm muncă fără forme legale.Tocmai pentru a preîntâmpina situații neplăcute, am inițiat în repetate rânduri acțiuni de informare pentru agenții economici, munca de prevenire având rolul său.Și pe această cale,vreau să reamintesc angajatorilor cazurile considerate muncă nedeclarată.

1.Primirea la muncă a unei persoane fără încheierea în formă scrisă a contractului individual de muncă,în ziua anterioară începerii activității.

2.Netransmiterea datelor raportului de muncă în REVISAL cel târziu în ziua anterioară începerii activității.

3.Primirea la muncă a salariatului în perioada în care are contractul de muncă suspendat(de exmplu concediu, concediu fără plată,etc)sau în afara orelor de program stabilite prin contract.







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