vineri , 27 noiembrie 2020

Cimbrul,o plantă mai mult decât un condiment

Cimbrul (Satureja hortensis) este o plantă perenă din genul Satureja, familia labiatelor (Lamiaceae). Este o plantă scundă, care nu atinge mai mult de 20-30 centimetri în înălțime. Preferă verile lungi, calde, secetoase, iar iarna supraviețuiește la temperaturi scăzute. Florile cimbrului sunt mici și au o culoare albă sau roz-palid.

Frunzele au forma lanceolat-ovală, sunt netede și au un miros specific. Cimbrul se aseamănă întrucâtva la înfățișare cu rozmarinul.

Cimbrul își are originile pe țărmurile europene ale Mării Mediterane(conform site-ului Wikipedia). În trecut,planta era denumită și lămâiță, respectiv lămâioară și era deosebit de apreciat în Evul Mediu, mai ales în bucătăriile de pe lângă așezămintele monahale. Cimbrul nu trebuie confundat cu cimbrișorul (Thymus serpyllum) care, deși înrudit cu cimbrul care crește spontan în România, aparține genului Thymus.

Cimbrișorul (Thymus serpyllum) denumit și iarba cucului sau tămâița, e tipic pajiștilor însorite alpine din munții Carpați și e folosit în medicina naturistă, la prepararea ceaiurilor contra răgușelilor și laringitelor. Mai este folosit- ca și măghiranul- în gastronomie, pentru a da aromă unor mâncăruri din carne de vită, legume sau pește.

O varietate apreciată este cimbrul de câmp, care creşte spontan pe pajişti şi fâneţe.(foto)

În medicina naturistă, infuzia de cimbru uscat este deosebit de eficace în tratarea tusei rebele. Părţile utile ale cimbrului sunt frunzele şi peţiolele florilor, care se recoltează la începutul sezonului de înflorire şi se usucă cu grijă, ferite de soare.
Cimbrul uscat se foloseşte la prepararea de infuzii, pulberi pentru capsule şi produse farmaceutice ca siropurile de tuse. Din ele se poate extrage şi un ulei esenţial, care intră în compoziţia unor creme şi unguente antiseptice. O plantă înrudită, cimbrul spaniol, este folosită şi ea pentru calităţile antiseptice ale uleiului esenţial. Varietăţile cultivate pentru proprietăţile lor interne au început să difere în mod sensibil de cele originale, atât la aspect cât şi la conţinutul lor.

Astfel dincolo de efectul său ca şi condiment în mâncare, cimbrul (conform Dr. Ruxandra Constantina, medic specialist apifitoterapie, Clinica Medas, Bucureşti), poate trata simptomele bronşitelor acute sau cronice, a virozelor respiratorii şi tusei pot fi reduse cu tinctură de cimbru, care are efect expectorant. În adaos cu extract de ciuboţica-cucului, tratamentul cu tinctură de cimbru are acţiune bronhodilatatoare, expectorantă şi calmantă. Se recomandă consumul a câte o linguriţă din fiecare tinctură, de câte 4-6 ori pe zi, timp de 2 săptămâni.

* În tratamentul astmului, pneumoniei şi infecţiilor respiratorii se recomandă administrarea de ulei volatil, câte 2-3 picături pe zi, timp de 2 săptămâni.

* Uleiul are efect antibiotic şi bronhodilatator puternic. Faringita şi laringita pot fi calmate tot cu ajutorul uleiului de cimbru.

* Colitele şi enterocolitele pot fi tratate cu ajutorul pulberei de cimbru. Simptomele colonului iritabil (spasmele digestive şi balonarea) pot fi reduse prin tratament cu pulbere de cimbru, pentru că are efect antiinflamator şi distruge flora bacteriană de fermentaţie. Se ia câte o jumătate de linguriţă de pulbere, de 4 ori pe zi.

* În tratamentul sinuzitelor, se utilizează tot uleiul volatil de cimbru, sub formă de inhalaţii. Se pot aplica şi comprese pe frunte cu tinctură de cimbru, care se ţin timp de cel puţin 20 de minute.

Nu este indicat să utilizaţi pe cale internă uleiul esenţial de cimbru, fără acordul medicului. Dacă intenţionezi să foloseşti extern uleiul esenţial de cimbru, trebuie să ştii că acesta poate irita pielea. Indiferent sub ce formă, cimbrul de cultură este contraindicat femeilor însărcinate.

În final, planta de cimbru trebuie văzută aşa cum este, drept una dintre „plantele de ajutor”, date de „mama Natură”.

redactor: Bogdan Mihai

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